Organic Chemistry (II)

Unit 8: Aromatic Hydrocarbon - 3 teaching hours
1 Definition, characteristics of aromatic compounds, Huckel's rule, structure of benzene, isomerism and orientation of benzene derivatives
2 Preparation of benzenes from i. decarboxylation ii. phenol iii. ethyne iv. chlorobenzene
3 Physical properties of benzene
4 Chemical properties of benzene
i. Addition reaction : hydrogen, halogen and ozone
ii. Electrophilic substitution reactions: nitration, sulphonation, halogenation Friedal craft's alkylation and  acylation
iii. Combustion of benzene and uses

Unit 9: Haloalkanes and Haloarenes - 8 teaching hours
9.1. Haloalkanes:
1 Introduction, classification and isomerism
2 Preparation of monohaloalkanes from alkanes, alkenes and alcohols
3 Physical properties of monohaloalkanes
4 Chemical properties: Substitution reactions, Elimination reaction (dehydrohalogenation), Grignard's reactions, Reduction reactions, Wurtz's reaction
5 Polyhaloalkane
- Laboratory preparation of trichloromethane from ethanol and proponone
- Physical properties of trichloromethane
- Chemical properties : oxidation reduction, action on Silver Powder, con.nitric acid, propanone, aqueous alkali, Carbylamine reaction , Remer Tiemann reaction , Iodiform reaction, etc.

9.2. Haloarenes:
Preparation of chlorobenzene from i. benzene ii. benzene diazonium chloride
Physical properties
• Chemical properties
- Low reactivity of haloarene as compound to haloalkane in term of nucleophilic substitution reaction
- Reduction of chlorobenzene
- Electrophilic substitutre reactons
-Action with Na, Mg and chloral etc.
- Uses

Unit 10: Alcohols and Phenols - 10 teaching hours
10.1. Alcohols:
1 Introduction, classification, nomenclature and isomerism
2 Distinction of primary, secondary and tertiary alcohol by Victor Mayer's Method
3 Preparation of monohydric alcohols form i. haloalkane ii. Grignard's reagents using aldehydes and ketones iii. primary amines iv. Ester
4 Industrial preparation ethanol form: i. Oxoprocess ii. Fermentation of sugar iii. hydroboration of ethane
5 Physical properties monohydric alcohols
6 Chemical properties of monohydric alcohols: Reaction with HX. PX3, PCl5, SOCl2, Action with reactive metals like Na, K, Li, Esterification process, Dehydration of alcohols, Oxidation of primary, secondary and tertiary alcohol with oxidizing agents, Reduction of alcohols (Catalyic dehydrogenation)
- Laboratory test of ethanol
- Absolute alcohol, methylated spirit, rectified spirit; alcoholic beverage.
Preparation and uses of ethan- 1, 2. diol (glycol)
Preparation and uses of Propan – 1, 2, 3 triol (glycerol)
10.2. Phenols:
1 Introduction to phenol
2 Preparation of phenol from i. chlorobenzene ii. Diazonium salt and iii.benzene sulphonic acid
3 Physical properties of phenol
4 Chemical properties:
- Acidic nature of phenol
- Action with PCl5, PX3, NH3, Zn, Na benzene diazonium chloride and phthalic anhydride
- Acylation reaction, Kolbe's reaction, Reimer Tiemann's reaction
- Electrophilic substitution: halogenation, nitration, sulphonation, brominaiton and Friedal Craft's alkylation
- Laboratory test of phenol
- Uses of phenol

Unit 11: Ethers - 4 teaching hours
11.1 Aliphatic Ethers:
1 Introduction, nomenclature classification, isomerism in ether
2 Preparation of ethers from i. alcohol ii. Williamson's etherification process
3 Laboratory preparation of ethoxy ethane form ethanol
4 Physical properties of ether
5 Chemical properties of ethoxyethane- action with HI , PCl5, con. HCl, Conc. H2SO4 air and Cl2
- Uses of ethoxy ethane

11.2 Aromatic Ether:
- Preparation of methoxy benzene (anisole)
- Halogenation, nitration and sulphonation reactions

Unit 12: Aldehydes and Ketones - 11 teaching hours
12.1 Aliphatic Aldehydes and Ketones
1 Introduction, structure of carbonyl group, nomenclature and isomerism in carbonyl compound
2 Preparation of aldehydes and ketones from i. Dehydrogenation and oxidation of alcohol ii. Ozonolysis of alkenes iii. Acid chloride iv. Gem dihaloalkane v. Calalytic distillation of fatty acid vi. Distillaiton of salt of fatty acid vii. Calalyic hydration of alkynes
3 Physical properties
4 Chemical properties i. Addition reaction: addition of H2, HCN, NaHSO3 and Grignand's reagents ii. Action with ammonia derivatives; NH2OH, NH2-NH2, phenyl hydrazine, semicarbazides and 2,4- DNP iii. Reduction properties of aldelydes- Oxidation with Tollen's reagent, Fehling's solution iv. Aldol or condensation reaction; clemennson's reduction Wolf- Kischner reduction, Action with PCl5, action with LiAlH4 v. Special reaction of methenal; cannazzaro's reaction, action with ammonia, action with phenol. formalin and its uses

12.2 Aromatic Aldelydes and Ketones :
Preparation of benzaldelyde from toluene
Properties of benzaldelyde
Important reaction benzaldelyde different form aliphatic aldelydes: Perkin condensation, Benzoin condensation, Electrophilic substitution reaction, Cannizzaro's reaction
Preparation of acetophenone by Friedal Craft's acylation

Unit 13: Carboxylic Acids - 10 teaching hours
13.1 Aliphatic Carboxylic Acids:
Introduction, nomenclature, examples
Preparation of monocarboxylic acids from i. aldehydes ii. nitriles iii. Grignard's reagents iv. dicarboxylic acid
v. sodium alkoxide. vi. trihaloalkanes
Physical properties of monocarboxylic acids
Chemical properties: Action with alkalies metal oxides, metal carbonates, metal bicarbonates, PCl3, LiAlH4 and dehydration of carboxylic acid, esterification, halogenation
Effect of constituents on the acidic strength of carboxylic acid
Laboratory preparation of methanoic acid
Abnormal behaviour of methanoic acid
Uses of carboxylic acid
13.2 Derivatives of Carboxylic Acid:
1 Nomenclature, preparation and properties of i. Acid halides ii. Acid amides iii. Acid anhydrides and iv. Esters
13.3 Aromatic Carboxylic Acids:
- Preparation of benzoic acid
- Physical and chemical properties
- Uses of benzoic acid

Unit 14: Nitrocompounds: - 4 teaching hours
14.1 Aliphalic Nitrocompounds (Nitroalkane):
1 Introduction and nomenclature
2 Preparation from haloalkane and alkane
3 Physical properties
4 Reduction of nitroalkane
5 Uses

14.2 Aromatic Nitrocompounds:
1 Laboratory preparation of nitrobenzene
2 Physical properties
3 Chemical properties: Reduction in different media, Electrophilic substitution reactions, Uses of nitrobenzene

Unit 15: Amino Compounds (Amines and Aniline) - 7 teaching hours
15.1 Aliphatic Amines:
1 Introduction, nomenclature and classification
2 Separation of primary , secondary and tertiary amines by Hoffmann's method
3 Preparation of primary amines form haloalkane , nitriles, nitroalkanes and amides
4 Physical properties
5 Chemical Properties: basicity of amines, comparative study of basic nature of 10, 20 and 30 amines. Reaction of Primary amines with chloroform, conc. HCl, R-X, RCOX and nitrous acid (NaNO2 / HCl)
6 Test of 10, 20 and 30 amines. (nitrous acid test)

15.2 Aromatic Amine (Aniline):
1 Laboratory preparation of aniline
2 Physical properties
3 Chemical properties: bassicity of aniline, comparision of basic nature of aniline with aliphatic amines; alkylation , acylation , diazotization, carbylamine and coupling reaction
4 Electrophilic substitution : Nitration sulphonation and bromination
5 Uses of anitne

Unit 16: Molecules of Life - 8 teaching hours
1 Carbohydrates: definition, classification of carbohydrates, various examples of carbohydrate of different class. structure and glucose and fructose, function of carbohydrates , sugar and nonsugar
2 Protein :definition, amino acid , essential and non-essential aminoacids, peptide linkage, hydrolysis of aminoacids, denaturation of protein, zwitter ions, functions of aminoacids
3 Nucleic acid: definition, basic components of nucleic acid; doule helix, difference between RNA and DNA; biological function of nucleic acid
4 Lipid: definition, fatty acids, fat as ester of fatty acid and difference between fats and oils, function of lipid
5 Enzymes and their functions

Unit 17: Chemistry in Service to Mankind - 10 teaching hours
1 Polymer: definition, natural and synthetic polymers, homopolymers and co-polymer Preparation of some polymers; PVC polyethene polystyreno Teflon, Nylon-66, Bakelite and their uses
2 Dyes: definition, natural and synthetic dyes, names and structure of some common drug, drug addiction
3 Fertilizer: definition, chemical and organic fertilizers, nitrogen fertilizer, phosphatic fertilizer; fertilizer as pollution
4 Pesticides: insecticides, herbicides. weedicides and fungcides (examples and their uses)