General and Physical Chemistry (II)

Unit 1: Chemical Bonding and Shape of Molecules - 3 teaching hours
1 Hybridization and concept of sigma and pi bond
2 Valence shell Electron Pair Repulsion (VSEPR) theory
3 Prediction of molecular geometry (Shape of molecules) on the basis of VSEPR and hybridization. (BeF2, BF3, NH3, H2O, CH4, H2O, C2H2 C2H4 H2S)

Unit 2: Volumetric Analysis - 8 teaching hours
1 Different ways of expressing the concentration of solutions i. Molarity, ii. Normality iii. Molality iv. Gram /Litre v. Percentage
2 Titration : i. acid-base titration ii. redox titration
3 Primary standard substances, primary standard solution , secondary standard solution, end point, equivalence point, neutral point, indicators
4 Derivation of normality equation
5 Relation between normality and molarity
6 Selection of indicators in acid-base titration and PH curve
7 Solving related numerical problems

Unit 3: Ionic Equilibrium - 12 teaching hours
1 Introduction
2 Ionization of weak electrolyte (Ostwald's dilution law)
3 Degree of ionization and ionization constant
4 Strength of acids and base interm of Ka, Kb and pKa and pKb values
5 Acid-base concept
i. Arrhenius concept of acids and bases.
ii. Bronsted lowry concept of acids and bases
iii. Lewis concept of acids and bases.
6 Ionization of water, pH and pH scale.
7 Hydrolysis of salts. (qualitative concept)
8 Solubility product principle and its application
9 Common ion effects and its application
10 Application of solubility product principle in qualitative analysis
11 Buffer Solution (Solving numerical problems related with solubility, solubility product, pH and pOH)

Unit 4: Electrochemistry - 10 teaching hours
1 Introduction
2 Electrolysis; strong and weak electrolyte
3 Arrehenius theory of ionization
4 Faraday's laws of electrolysis
5 Criteria of product formation during electrolysis
6 Electrolytic conduction, equivalent and molar conductivities
7 Variation of conductivity with concentration
8 Electrode potential, standard electrode potential,standard hydrogen electrode and its applications
9 Eletrochemical series and its use to predict the feasibility of redox reactions
10 Electrochemical cell (Galvanic cell)
11 EMF of electrochemical cell in the standard state (Solving related numerical problems)

Unit 5: Energetics of Chemical Reactions - 8 teaching hours
1 Introduction, unit of energy
2 Some thermodynamical terms: system, surrounding , boundary , universe different types of system, state function, state variables and internal energy
3 Exchange of energy between the system and surrounding
4 Different types of thermodynamic process
5 The first law of thermodynamics
6 Sign convention of heat and work
7 Enthalpy, enthalpy change in chemical reactions
8 Hess's law of constant heat summation
9 Heat of neutralization, heat of solution, heat of combustion, heat of vapourization, heat of formation and bond energy (Solving related numerical problems)

Unit 6: Chemical Thermodynamics - 6 teaching hours
1 IntroductionSpontaneous process
2 Second law of thermodynamics
3 Entropy and its physical concept
4 Entropy change in phase transformation
5 Entropy and spontaneity
6 Entropy changes and their calculation
7 Gibb's free energy and prediction for the feasibility of reaction
8 Standard free energy change and equilibrium constant
9 Influence of temperature on spontaneous process (Calculation involving in standard free energy change and equilibrium constant)

Unit 7: Chemical Kinetics - 10 Teaching hours
1 Concept of reaction rate
2 Average rate and instantaneous rate of a reaction
3 Factors that influences the rate of reaction
4 Rate law equation, rate constant and its units
5 Ist order, IInd order, IIIrd order and zero order reactions
6 Order and molecularity of a reaction
7 Integrated rate law for a first order reaction
8 Half-life of a reaction (first order)
9 Explaining the increase in reaction rate with temperature or collision theory (qualitative concept only)
10 Concept of activation energy as the energy barrier, activated complex and effect of catalyst on the rate of reaction (Solving related numerical problems)