Organic Chemistry (I)

Unit 14: Introduction to Organic Chemistry
14.1 Fundamental Principles: - 6 teaching hours
1 Definition of organic chemistry and organic compounds
2 Origin of organic compounds (vital force theory)
3 Reasons for the separate study of organic compounds
4 Tetracovalency and catenation property of carbon
5 Classification of organic compounds
6 Functional groups and homologous series
7 Meaning of empirical formula, molecular formula, structural formula and contracted formula
8 Qualitative analysis of organic compounds. (detection of N,S and halogens by Lassaegne's test)

14.2. Nomenclature of Organic Compounds: - 6 teaching hours
1 Common names
2 IUPAC system and IUPAC rules of naming hydrocarbons, alcohols, ethers, aldehydes & Ketones,
carboxylic acid, amines, ester, acid derivative, halogen derivative, nitriles, etc.)

14.3. Structure Isomerism in Organic Compounds: - 2 teaching hours
1 Definition of structure isomerism
2 Types of structure isomerism: chain isomerism, position, isomerism, functional isomerism and metamerism

14.4 Preliminary Idea of Reaction Mechanism - 2 teaching hours
1 Concept of homolytic and herterolytic fission
2 Electrophile , nucleophiles and free- radicals
3 Inductive effect, +I and –I effect

Unit 15: Hydrocarbons
15.1 Sources: - 4 teaching hours
Origin of coal and petroleum, hydrocarbon from petroleum, cracking and reforming, aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbon form coal, quality of gasoline, octane member and gasoline additive.

15.2 Alkanes (Saturated Hydrocarbons):
1 General methods of preparations : Decarboxylation, Catalytic hydrogenation, Reduction of haloalkane, Kolbe's electrolysis method, Using Grigrand's reagent, Wurtz reaction, From aldelydes and ketones
2 Physical properties
3 Chemical properties: Substitutions reaction, oxidation, pyrolysis or cracking aromatization

15.3. Alkenes : - 4 teaching hours
1 General methods of preparation: Dehydration of alcohol, Dehydrohalogenation, Catalytic hydrogenation of alkyne, Kolbe's electrolysis
2 Laboratory preparation of alkene
3 Chemical properties of alkene: Addition reaction ( H2,X2,HX, H2O, O3, H2SO4)
4 Oxidation with alkaline KMnO4 (Baeyer's reaction)
5 Polymerisation
6 Test of ethene and uses

15.4. Alkynes : - 3 teaching hours
1 General methods of preparation from i. carbon and hydrogen ii. Kolbes electrolysis iii. 1,2 dibromoethane
2 Laboratory preparation of ethyne
3 Physical properties
4 Chemical properties: Addition (H2,X2, HX, H2O, O3), Acidic nature (action with ammonical AgNO3 and ammonical Cu2Cl2) , Oxidation with alkaline KMnO4, Polymerization & uses of ethyne