Properties of mercury

Here are some facts about mercury:
· Symbol: Hg
· Atomic Number: 80
· Atomic Weight: 200.56 g
· Period Number: 6
· Group Number: 12
· Classification: Metallic
· Electron configuration: [Xe]4f(14)5d(10)6s(2)
(Note that there are electrons in the d orbital, which makes mercury a transition metal)
· Crystal Structure: Rhombohedral

· Electrons per energy level: 2, 8, 18, 32, 18, 2.
· Shell Model:

graphic of Mercury's shell model

· Number of Electrons (with no charge): 80
· Number of Neutrons (most common): 121
· Number of Protons: 80
· Filling Orbital: 5d 10
· Valence Electrons: 6s 2
· Electron Dot Model:
graphic of Mercury's electron dot model
· Density: 13.55g/cc @ 300K
· Vapor Pressure: .0002 Pa @ -38.7 C
· Melting Point: -38.7 C
· Boiling Point: 357 C

As one can see from the melting and boiling points (-38.7 C and 357 C, respectively), elemental mercury exists as a liquid at room temperature. Liquid mercury is very volatile (in fact the most of any metal), as seen from its very low vapor pressure of .00002 Pa @ -38.7 C. Even though this transition metal is a liquid, it is still conductive, with an electrical conductivity of 0.0104 106/cm ohm and a thermal conducitivity of 0.0834 W/cmK. Excited mercury atoms emit light in visible wavelengths, making it especially useful in light bulb applications.

Mercury readily forms amalgams, or solutions, with other metals. For example, an amalgam of mercury, tin and silver is used in dentistry. This tendency for mercury to form amalgams makes it especially dangerous to be handled by people wearing gold jewelry, as it can diffuse into the gold.

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