Classification of crystalline solids

Crystalline solids can be further classified depending on the nature of the bonding as:
  • Ionic
  • Molecular
  • Covalent
  • Metallic

Classification of Crystalline solids

Types of Solids Constituent Particles Nature of forces Examples
Ionic Positive and negative ions Strong electrostatic forces of attraction KCl, BaSO4 KNO3, LF
Molecular Molecules (I) Vander Waal’s forces
(ii) Dipole interaction
(iii) Hydrogen bonding
I2, CO2(solid) HCl Ice
Covalent Atom Covalent bonds Diamond, silicon
Metallic Positive metal ions (kernels) and mobile electrons Metallic bonds All metals and some alloys

Some substances adopt different structural arrangements under different conditions. Such arrangements are called Polymorphs.

Example: Diamond and graphite are two different polymorphic forms of carbon.

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