Deduction of molar volume of gases

Molar volume is the volume occupied by one mole of any gas at a definite pressure and temperature. It is denoted by Vm. Molar volume of the substance depends on temperature and pressure. The unit of molar volume is litre per mol or millilitre per mol.

As per Avogadro's law, equal volumes of all gases contain equal number of molecules, at a constant temperature and pressure. Therefore, equal number of molecules of any gas, must occupy the same volume, at constant temperature and pressure.

Standard Molar Volume

Standard molar volume of a gas is the volume occupied by 1 mole of any gas at 273 K and 1 atm pressure (STP). It is equal to 22.4 litres of 22,400 ml. It is the same for all gases.

Remember

S.T.P. = Standard Temperature and Pressure

Standard Temperature = 0oC or 273 K

Standard Pressure = 1 atm or 760 mm of mercury


Calculation of Molar Volume

Example of oxygen

Mass of 1 litre of oxygen at STP = 1.429 g

Mass of 1 mol of oxygen = 32 g

Volume : Mass

1 litre : 1. 429 g

x : 32 g

The following table gives the relation between the Gram Molecular Weight (GMW), Number of moles, Molar Volume and the Number of particles for gases at STP.

Relationship between Various Parameters of Gases, at STP


Gas Molecular Formula GMW
(in g)
No.Of Moles Molar Volume
dm
3 or l
No.of moles in 1 mole
Hydrogen H2 2 1 22.4 6.023x 1023
Oxygen O2 32 1 22.4 6.023x 1023
Nitrogen N2 28 1 22.4 6.023x 1023
Chlorine Cl2 71 1 22.4 6.023x 1023
Carbon dioxide CO2 44 1 22.4 6.023x 1023
Nitrogen dioxide NO2 46 1 22.4 6.023x 1023
Ammonia NH3 17 1 22.4 6.023x 1023
Methane CH4 16 1 22.4 6.023x 1023
Sulphur dioxide SO2 64 1 22.4 6.023x 1023

Problems Based on Molar Volume

Example:

Calculate the volume occupied by 3.4 g of ammonia at STP. (N=14, H=1)

Solution

Gram molecular mass of ammonia (NH3) = (1 x 14) + (3 + 1) = 14 + 3 = 17 g

Mass of 1 mol of ammonia = 17g

Molar volume = 22.4 litres

Volume of 3.4 g of ammonia at STP = ?

Mass : Volume

17 g : 22.4 litre

3.4 g : x

Volume occupied by 3.4 g of ammonia at STP =4.48 litres

Example:

56 ml of carbon dioxide has a mass at 0.11 g at STP. What is the molar mass of the carbon dioxide?

Solution:

Mass of 56 ml of carbon dioxide at STP = 0.11 g

Mass of 22400 ml of carbon dioxide = ?

Mass : Volume

0.11 g : 56 ml

x g : 22400 ml

Mass of 22400 ml of carbon dioxide at STP = 44 g

Molar Mass of carbon dioxide = 44 g/mole.

Example:

One gram of pure sulphur dioxide has a volume of 350 ml at STP. What is the Relative Molecular Mass of sulphur dioxide?

Solution:

Volume of sulphur dioxide gas = 350 ml at STP

Mass of sulphur dioxide gas = 1 g

Mass of one mole of sulphur dioxide = x g/mole

Volume of 1 mole of sulphur dioxide = 22400 ml at STP

Mass : Volume

1 : 350 ml

x : 22400 ml

Mass of 1 mole of SO2 = 64 g/mole

\ Relative molecular mass of sulphur dioxide = 64.

Example:

100 ml of carbon monoxide, has a mass of 0.125 g at STP. Calculate the mass of 1 mole of carbon monoxide.

Solution:

Volume of carbon monoxide = 100 ml

Mass of carbon monoxide = 0.125 g

Molar volume = 22400 ml

Mass of 1 mole of carbon monoxide =?

Volume : Mass

100 ml : 0.125 g

22400 ml : x g

Mass of one mole of carbon monoxide = 28 g/mole

\ Relative molecular mass of carbon monoxide = 28.

1 comment:

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